Imperia’s Power Delivery Services
Imperia’s Power Delivery Group specializes in engineering and design services for electrical substations, transmission lines, protection & control systems, and distribution systems. The Group has rich experience designing new power delivery systems (greenfield), as well as modifying existing systems (brownfield).
Whether you need a brand new substation, transmission line, or distribution system, or you need to expand the capacity and the life span of your existing system, Imperia has a solution. In addition, our architectural capability can visually blend your substation with the surrounding architecture, providing your structure with minimal visual impact. With a portfolio that spans a wide range of voltages and physical layouts, both overhead and undergound, Power Delivery is staffed with a full range of engineering disciplines to provide your complete engineering packages: Electrical Engineers, Civil/Structural Engineers, and Protection & Control Engineers, all supported by experienced Senior Designers.
Our Services Include:
- Substation Design
- Substation Expansion
- Substation Retrofitting
- Substation Protective Relaying
- Feasibility & Planning Studies
- Arc Flash Hazard Analysis
- Transmission & Distribution Design
- Structural Analysis
- Client staff augmentation for long-term projects
- Operating Procedure Development
- Operation & Maintenance Manuals
- Staff Training
- Site Selection
- Computer-Aided Design & Simulation
- Owner’s Representative (Owner’s Engineer)
- Engineering, Procurement & Construction (EPC)
- Engineering, Procurement & Construction Management (EPCM)
- Detailed Design
- Procurement & Expediting
- Site Planning
- Value Engineering / Life Cycle Costing
- Permit Applications
- Cost Estimating / Cost Control
- Plant Layout
- CPM Scheduling & Claims Analysis
- Equipment Arrangements
- Project Management
- Equipment Specification & Selection
- RFP & Specification Writing
- Start-up and Test Support
- Plant Automation / Process
- Controls & Instrumentation
- Laboratory Services
Substation Engineering & Design
Imperia provides the highest quality services in all engineering disciplines to utility, industrial, commercial, and institutional customers as well as to independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, municipal electric companies, and others involved in the production, transmission, distribution and utilization of electric power.
Imperia engineers and designs complete substations, additions to substations, and equipment replacements – both planned and emergency. We have experience designing the installation of circuit breakers, transformers, and switches from low voltage to 500 kV.
Typical examples of projects Imperia has designed include:
- Feasibility studies and conceptual layouts
- Turnkey EPC package to owner standards
- Grounding system analysis and design
- Project and construction management 500kV transmission line
- 345kV, 230kV, 138kV, 69kV, 24kV, 13.8kV and 12kV substation additions
- Scheduled and emergency replacement of 345kV, 230kV, 138kV, 69kV, 24kV, 13.8kV and 12kV power circuit breakers
- Complete 138kV – 13.8kV and 69kV – 12kV substations, including unit substations
- GIS substations
- Installation of 345kV series reactors
- Installation of outdoor switchgear
- Scheduled and emergency replacement of substation transformers and bus conductors
- Reinforcements to support structures
- Emergency replacement of support structures
- Replacement of protective relays, protective relay panels, and auxiliary equipment
- Installation of shunt capacitor banks
- Protective relay schemes for:
- Transmission Line protection
- Distribution Feeder protection
- Transformer protection
- Bus protection
- Series and shunt reactor protection
- Capacitor protection
- Breaker failure
Our comprehensive, multidisciplinary capabilities allow us to handle complete designs including site grading and cut and fill, foundations for structures, transformers and circuit breakers, SPCC for oil filled equipment, support structures, control houses, ground grids, cable, conduit, cable trench, and duct banks, low voltage AC and DC panels, relay panels, perimeter security as well as all other features commonly encountered when designing outdoor, open air substations.
Transmission and Distribution
Imperia has designed miles of distribution and transmission lines up to 500kV.
Services included all electrical, civil and structural engineering and design, as-built drawings, and construction management.
For instance, the 2.3-mile long 500kV line design was based on PJM and NESC Standards for a normal loading of 568 MW at unity power factor.
Other examples of projects include the heightening of 345kV transmission lines between two substations due to the construction of a new reinforced concrete railroad bridge. To obtain the required 20′ clearance, it was necessary to raise the existing suspension span of double bundle 795 ACSR to a heigh of 40′ above the existing grade. It was also necessary to add two additional structures.
Imperia also designed a by-pass for 138kV transmission lines and temporary overhead feeders.
With clients throughout the country, Imperia engineers and designs complete power distribution systems, additions, modifications, and equipment replacements – both planned and emergency. We have experience engineering and designing low voltage equipment whether out on the lines, in a facility or in a substation for all distribution voltages.
As a customer centric organization, we are prepared to develop the appropriate design packages whether it’s in accordance with client specific design standards or with Imperia’s design standards. Our engineers are considered the best trained, most experienced professionals in the industry. Their experience comes from years of working for and with utilities and independent power producers. This intimate knowledge of the needs and requirements of a utility enable our engineers to quickly and efficiently design the appropriate solution.
Typical examples of projects Imperia Solutions has designed include:
- Feasibility studies and conceptual layouts
- Turnkey EPC package to owner standards
- Grounding system analysis and design
- Project and Construction Management
- Overhead and underground electric utility infrastructure design (primary or secondary)
- Transformer application analysis
- Fuse coordination and line protection
- Metal-clad and metal-enclosed switchgear applications
- Downtown underground and complex network systems
- Development of material & equipment specifications
- Material procurement services
- Cable replacement projects
- Line and facility upgrades
- Re-conductoring for system growth
- Line relocations for roadway improvements (DOT projects)
- Engineering to facilitate for communications or other attachments
- Load studies & Reliability analysis
- System planning / system improvements
- On-site or off-site engineering staff augmentation
- Reinforcements to support structures
- Emergency replacement of support structures.
- Installation of capacitor banks
- Protective relay schemes for:
- Distribution Feeder Protection
- Transformer & Bus Protection
- Capacitor Protection
Our comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach allows us to handle complete designs including: site grading and cut and fill; foundations for structures, poles, transformers, and circuit breakers; SPCC for oil filled equipment; support structures; cable, conduit, cable trench, and duct banks, low voltage AC and DC panels.
Imperia designs smart grid systems to improve safety and reliability in the power grid.
Providing diagnostic and supervisory control capabilities for substations, these systems collect and analyze real-time data on the state of the grid. Then, the smart grid systems make the changes necessary to prevent adverse effects on power delivery.
Data collected by smart grid systems include loads, voltages, currents, and waveforms. Typically, the data and supervisory control signals of smart grid systems are transmitted over fiber optic cable, but secure wireless communication methods are available as well.
SCADA Systems and Substation Automation
Imperia designs SCADA functionality into electrical substations. SCADA is an acronym for, “Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition.” SCADA is used to affect physical change, such as the tripping of a breaker. Modern SCADA components are controlled via internet protocol (IP) signals, and are intricately related to information technology (IT) systems.
However, SCADA goes a step further than IT, by not just manipulating and storing data, but using it to physically control substations from remote locations. Imperia has designed SCADA rack configurations, rack wiring diagrams, controller interconnections, and patch panels.
Relay Protection & Control
Imperia is prepared to develop complete design packages for protection of transmission lines, distribution lines, transformers, generators, motors, capacitors, shunt reactors, series reactors, and buses for all switchyard configurations and all voltage levels – from 4.16 KV through 765 KV.
Imperia can help you:
- Replace vintage electromechanical relays with the latest microprocessor based technology
- Outfit new substations
- Add generation
- Add redundancy to existing schemes
- Install new transformers, generators, lines or busses
Imperia has the experience required to develop world class design packages that include one line diagrams, three line diagrams, control/elementary drawings, wiring drawings, panel layouts, and cable lists supported by calculations for battery sizing, control circuit voltage drop, CT capability, cable pulling, panel seismic loading and so much more.
Imperia has worked with protective relays supplied by all protective relay manufacturers. We develop new schemes, implement designs using your standards, upgrade your standard drawings to accommodate new technology and work seamlessly with your staff to exceed expectations.
Imperia is committed to helping our clients meet all requirements for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. Our staff has an in-depth understanding of requirements in NFPA 70E, IEEE Standard 1584, and NESC C2. Imperia has been developing Arc Flash studies for more than a decade. (The chronology of Arc Flash requirements reveals that the issue began in the petro-chemical industry, was formalized for other industries with the issuance of NFPA 70E as a standard in 2004, and was formalized for electric utilities with the issuance of NESC C2 in 2007).
In simple terms, Arc Flash studies consider available energy, working distance, and fault clearing time in the unlikely event that an electrical arc would occur when workers are repositioning electrical components.
Imperia is prepared to calculate the energy that can be released by an inadvertent, arcing type, short circuit; to calculate the energy that might impinge on nearby workers; and to specify the appropriate levels of protective clothing required.
Our staff has developed arc flash studies for a wide variety of clients. We have:
- Walked down facilities to gain an understanding of equipment installations
- Prepared short circuit studies that document short circuit current levels
- Reviewed fuse, circuit breaker, and protective relay time current curves to determine fault clearing times
- Developed studies to document incident energy levels
- Recommended flash protection boundaries
- Recommended protective clothing
- Presented training to explain key principles of arc flash hazards
- Assisted in the placement of Arc Flash warning signs designed to alert workers
Imperia has the experience to develop and enhance Electrical Safety in the Workplace programs. We can relate to your staff and explain in practical terms the expectation that everyone is entitled to a safe and productive workplace. We can provide examples of incidents and near misses that, although unlikely, highlight the need for diligence and care as we perform our daily work activities and the need to be aware of potential arc flash hazards.
Addressing Arc Flash Hazard
OSHA 1910.132(d) and 1926.28(a) requires that the “…employer shall assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).”
Potential Exposure to Arc Flash
Although it may appear that arc flash incidents are uncommon, statistics show that the damage they cause is considerable. Bureau of Labor Statistics data shows several thousand cases of reported days away from work due to electrical burns, electrocution or electrical shock injuries, fires and explosions.
The exposure to arc flash depends on the following:
- Arc flash hazard is a potential danger to workers near and around live exposed electrical parts
- Work performed on exposed live equipment
- Complexity of the task performed
- Space restrictions
- Tools and PPE used
- Condition of equipment
Arc Flash Hazard Analysis Services
- Evaluation of your electrical facilities
- Create short-circuit study
- Create protective-device coordination study
- Updates/Create Facility One Line Diagrams
- Determination of the incident energy exposure to the worker within the flash protection boundary in order to satisfy the requirements of NFPA 70E
- Complies with requirements of OSHA, NFPA-70E and insurance requirements
Imperia is prepared to assist in the preparation, review, and verification of NERC mandated documentation related to the design and operation of the bulk power system in North America.
Imperia can perform independent audits of documents, data bases, calculations, protective relay settings, design practices, and operating and maintenance practices in preparation for NERC audits; in support of resolution of NERC findings; and as needed to provide assurance that historical data is correct and proper.
As part of the products Imperia prepares for electric utilities, independent power producers, and major consumers of electrical power, Imperia has developed:
- Facility Ratings
- Facility Connection Requirements
- Steady-State System Models
- Load Shedding Plans
- Protective Relaying Schemes
- Remedial Action Schemes
- Underfrequency Relaying Schemes
- Special Protection System Schemes
- Protective Relay Loadability Calculations
- System Protection Coordination
While supplementing client work groups, our staff has prepared
- Disturbance Reports
- Steady-State System Model
- Analyzed Transmission and Generation Protection System Misoperations
- Analyzed Protection System and Remedial Action Scheme Misoperations
- Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding Load Lists
- Undervoltage Load Shedding Programs
- Special Protection System Assessments
- Transmission Relay Loadability
Our subject matter experts have the in-depth knowledge of transmission and distribution systems, connected loads, and generator capabilities to provide the level of confidence needed to address NERC issues on a nationwide basis. Senior members of our staff have more 30-40 years of experience designing and operating electric transmission systems. They have worked at the desks in power control centers, as switchmen in high voltage substations, and as project managers during construction of new facilities.
Electrical System Studies and Analysis
Imperia is prepared to develop system studies, short circuit studies, protective relay setpoint analysis, load flow studies, voltage studies, ground grid analysis, forensic investigations, structure load analysis, cable pulling calculations, motor starting calculations, generator sizing, battery and charger sizing and a wide variety of other calculations, studies, and analysis needed to justify new installations, equipment retrofits, and continued operation.
Imperia can use models, programs and databases loaded on client supplied laptops; commercially available programs with Imperia developed models; or a combination or user supplied data and Imperia models.
- Analyzed load flow and system impacts when small combined cycle generation was connected to a networked distribution system.
- Studied new switchyard configurations at Nuclear Power Plants.
- Utilized client databases to evaluate protective relay settings when new generators were proposed to be connected to a 138 KV network.
- Developed ground grid calculations needed to justify design of ground grids at substations.
- Developed battery and charger sizing calculations needed to support replacement of electromechanical relays with microprocessor based relays.
- Performed forensic investigations of power cables, motors, relays, transformers, CCVTs, electric heaters, containment penetrations, etc.
- Analyzed degraded grid conditions.
- Developed motor starting calculations and supported restart of large motors.
- Developed cable pulling calculations for low voltage, medium voltage and high voltage cables pulled through conduits, duct banks, cable tray, etc.
Fault Induced, Delayed Voltage Recovery Analysis
Since the Great Northeast Blackout of 2003, Imperia has been researching traditional power system models, power system load representations, and the design and operation of transmission and distribution systems. Our research indicates that the accuracy of today’s power system models need to be enhanced by the addition of new load models that more accurately represent distribution system customer loads during Fault Induced, Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR) conditions.
At this time, Imperia is prepared to work with clients to evaluate:
- Impact of remote, EHV, three phase short circuits on distribution system load models.
- Need to upgrade models to understand transmission system performance with enhanced customer load models.
- Cost effective system enhancements that mitigate local impacts when three phase faults occur at remote locations.
To uncover weaknesses in distribution system design and operation and the resultant impact on transmission system operability, Imperia’s Subject Matter Experts (SME) are prepared to:
- Meet with client distribution system operations SME, transmission system operations SME, and protection and control SME to discuss risks and impacts.
- Use client short circuit models to develop voltage profiles across the distribution system when three phase short circuits occur at remote locations.
- Use client transmission system models to develop voltage profiles across the transmission system considering Fault Induced, Delayed Voltage Recovery.
- Modify client distribution system models to predict Fault Induced, Delayed Voltage Recovery at selected distribution substations when three phase faults occur at remote locations.
- Develop recommendations for corrective action.
These concerns are best illustrated using Figure 1 which shows:
- Voltage along a distribution line is maintained at, or above, nominal value during peak load conditions (black line).
- Voltage along a distribution line decays substantially during fault conditions at remote locations (red line).
- Voltage along a distribution line does not recovery immediately when the remote fault is cleared.
The dashed lines in the figure below represent critical load voltages for HT – High Torque Motor Loads and LT – Low Torque Motor Loads. The concern is that existing load flow models represent motors as constant power loads. Our analysis indicates that the existing representation is adequate for low torque and variable torque mechanical loads, that is, fans and pumps. However, our analysis indicates that the existing representation is unacceptable for high torque mechanical loads, that is, air conditioners, refrigerators, and air compressors. Moreover, our analysis indicates that high torque motor loads will stall in less than 3 cycles (50 milliseconds) when a three phase fault occurs at remote locations.
Imperia is a nationally recognized engineering firm of highly skilled professionals and has been providing services to the utility and commercial industries since the mid-eighties.
Due to our vast experience in a variety of areas, we are able to bring the knowledge and skills to you. As your success depends on your ability to address day to day problems and issues, Imperia offers a number of in plant courses in our core areas that were developed for the plant engineer, technician, operations, or maintenance individual. These courses are designed to provide you the skills and knowledge needed to become more effective in your job. Some of the classes being offered are described below.
Protective Coatings Training
Imperia offers a three-day comprehensive protective coatings training course intended for personnel assigned technical responsibility for the plant’s protective coatings and linings program. It is equally useful to personnel with job responsibilities associated with specification, application, and inspection of protective coatings in the plant. This course also can be used to support certification as a Protective Coating Inspector to the requirements of ASTM D 4537. In addition to addressing protective coating basics, the training is customized to address the requirements of the respective power plant by integrating an applicable plant-specific safety- related coating specification and safety-related coating application procedure into the training.
Digital Engineering Fundamentals
These courses provide students with an overview of digital engineering fundamental knowledge:
- Life Cycle Process Overview (4 hrs)
- Platform Technology (4 hrs)
- Human Factors Engineering Fundamentals (4 hrs)
- Application Support Concepts (4 hrs)
- V&V / Testing Concepts (4 hrs)
- Network Technologies (10 hrs)
Digital Instrumentation Fundamentals
This one-day course, designed for engineers with an understanding of analog control systems provides students with an overview of the knowledge necessary to upgrade analog control systems to digital control systems. This course reviews the difference between analog and digital systems, as well as outlining the benefits and concerned associated with changing from an analog control system to a digital control system.
Flow Accelerated Corrosion
Imperia offers a range of training options from single day introductory/overview courses to five day in-depth workshops. Imperia also offers programs customized to meet a client’s specific needs. Our instructors are recognized as industry experts and have provided FAC training for multiple domestic and international utilities.
Our FAC training offerings include:
- Introduction to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (Non-Program Owner) – 1 Day
- Introduction to FAC and CHECWORKS™ SFA – 3 Days
- Advanced CHECWORKS™ SFA and Program Implementation – 3 Day
- Advanced FAC Program Owner Training – 5 Day
- Introduction to FAC Manager
Erosion Program Training
Imperia offers training programs for personnel involved in Erosion/Mechanical Degradation programs. Our offerings range from single day introductory/overview courses to five day in-depth workshops In-depth programs utilize EPRI’s CHECWORKS™ SFA erosion functionality and introduce the FAC Manager Erosion Bundle. Imperia also offers training programs customized to meet a client’s specific needs.
Our Erosion/Mechanical Degradation training offerings include:
- Introduction to Erosion/Mechanical Degradation (Non-Program Owner) – 1 Day
- Introduction to Erosion and CHECWORKS™ SFA – 3 Days
- Advanced CHECWORKS™ SFA and Erosion Program Implementation – 3 Day
- Advanced Erosion and FAC Program Integration Training – 5 Day
This course, geared toward System, Component, and Design Engineers, provides the basic concepts of component failure analysis, supplemented with case studies and samples of actual failures. Included is a description of how to recognize degradation mechanisms, indicators, and stressors as well as fundamentals of analytical techniques. These failure analysis concepts provide a foundation for failure prevention strategies.
DC power is essential to the operation of utility substations and generating plants. DC power is supplied to microprocessor based relays, SCADA RTUs, indicating lights, auxiliary relays, interposing relays, circuit breaker trip coils, circuit breaker closing coils, and circuit breaker charging motors, motor operated valves, emergency pumps, annunciators, and other components. This course is designed to demonstrate the process used to size lead acid batteries and battery chargers. This course includes evaluating DC load profiles and DC system performance during normal system operation, during loss of AC conditions, and during design base conditions with and without concurrent AC system events.
Course Outline (1-day course)
- Stationary Batteries
- Flooded Cell
- Valve Regulated
- Battery and System Voltage
- Normal (float operation, normal battery voltage)
- Discharge (low voltage, minimum battery voltage)
- Equalize (high voltage, maximum battery voltage)
- System Voltage
- Battery Load
- Continuous Loads
- Non-continuous Loads
- Momentary Loads
- Defined Loads
- Random Loads
- Battery Load Profile
- Battery Sizing Calculation
- Battery Chargers
- Battery Charger Sizing Calculation
- Fuse Ratings
- Load Characteristics
- Microprocessor Based Relays
- Lockout Relays
- Circuit Breaker Trip Coils
- Circuit Breaker Charging Motors
- DC System Performance
- Normal Conditions, Battery in Float
- Momentary Load, Battery almost Fully Discharged (Low Voltage)
- Continuous Load, Battery Charger in Equalize Mode (High Voltage)
Protective Relaying for Power System Protection
Protective relaying is essential to the continued operation of electric transmission systems. This three day course focuses on protection of electrical transmission systems and components vital to the continued operation of the integrated power grid. The course will include perspectives gained from working with a wide variety of clients throughout the United States, including investor owned utilities, independent power providers, regional transmission operators, and equipment suppliers.
- Basic Electrical Theory and Abnormal System Conditions
- Instrument Transformers
- Protection Fundamentals
- Protective Relaying Applications
- Case Studies – Discussion of Significant Events
Motor Theory and Applications
Motors are used in numerous applications in power plants and industrial facilities. This course presents material applicable to induction motors, synchronous motors, DC motors, and variable frequency drives. This includes basic electrical theory, such as equivalent circuits, and practical application data, such as breakdown torque.
Materials Consulting/Failure Analysis
Materials Science and Engineering Center (MS&EC) for Energy
The Materials Science and Engineering Center laboratory services have been utilized for support of process and materials changes, vendor changes, manufacturing outsourcing and product quality. Imperia provides materials testing services utilizing both on-site field services and laboratory based investigations. Our technical services are compliant with 10CFR 50 Appendix B.
Our MS&EC services include:
Materials Science & Engineering
MS&EC’s integrated team of engineers, scientists, and technical specialists tackles challenging problems by providing integrated design, engineering and laboratory testing services. Our team has expertise in metallography, chemistry, polymer science, mechanical testing, electrical testing and more.
A top-notch laboratory provides us with unique abilities that go beyond standard laboratory analyses to provide valuable advisory services for design, qualification, failure mitigation and prevention such as modifications, materials selection, operations, maintenance, or environment.
The MS&EC offers high end analysis and laboratory based testing services that focus on performing investigations and solving problems for our clients. We emphasize a methodical approach that focuses on root cause analysis. Failure Analysis requires broad-based engineering skills, fundamental materials knowledge, forensic experience, and scientific objectivity. With our integrated engineering and laboratory capabilities, we provide this unusually broad capability. We understand the necessity of a timely and responsive result to support tight deadlines and crisis management.
Where radioactive materials are utilized, the MS&EC is licensed to handle radioactively contaminated samples.
Testing and Simulations
Testing with custom made mock-up simulations are often used to solve complex engineering problems or to assess a material, system, structure or component. This can be performed on-site or in the MS&EC’s laboratory. Our testing and analysis laboratory allows us to perform a wide range of laboratory testing including:
- Customer setups
- Prototype testing
- Accelerated aging
- Laboratory Investigations on a Wide Range of Materials—metals, polymers, bio-materials, composites, glass and ceramics, coatings, lubricants
Designing or redesigning a product requires a thorough understanding of materials, components, and systems. Our experience with failure mechanisms for a multitude of products and materials in various industries gives our clients the edge to successfully develop their next product. Whether the product is a critical spacecraft component or a toaster oven, safety, reliability, function and cost containment are critical issues designers and manufacturers must face. Our engineering and laboratory-based analytical tools allow us to effectively investigate these issues, provide independent assessments, appropriately simulate the life cycle and develop focused recommendations. We offer:
- Custom setups and prototype testing
- Analysis of product failures or degradation
- Design of experiments for robust evaluations
- Comparative product analysis and testing
- Material selection, evaluation of components and systems
- Development of quality control setups and prototype testing
- Finite element stress, functionality, and system analyses
- Material and product qualification
- Complete design consulting services
Radioactive Materials Lab
Imperia’s Radioactive Materials Lab allows us to offer the full services of Imperia Laboratories to projects involving radioactive material. We are able to examine, test, analyze and investigate radioactive samples without requiring prior decontamination that could alter materials or remove evidence valuable to the analysis.
Decisions in the area of materials selection, usage, and processing are impacted by design, technical, and economic factors. In order to be genuinely effective with these materials it is necessary to consider all of the factors which affect your business. Imperia has the experience, staff, and tools needed to help you make optimal materials decisions and to put your team on the path to better decision making.
We bring the right combination of our strong, well-rounded engineering and scientific team together in the work we do for our clients. A critical part of our problem-solving ability is our internal laboratory that allows us to integrate the material, design, and operational aspects of a problem and to conduct testing and simulations.
Imperia brings to bear:
- A diverse range of experience in corrosion engineering and materials degradation, relying upon on-site field services and laboratory investigations.
- Broad-based engineering skills, integrated with materials knowledge and forensic techniques.
- A strong foundation in materials: ferrous and nonferrous metals, concrete, ceramics, elastomers, polymers, coatings, and lubricants.
- Testing components and materials during the design phase to avoid costly and time-consuming operational or product failures.
- Training and educating our clients in materials-related subjects, including corrosion, material selection, reliability improvement, aging assessments, and failure prevention.
Imperia’s electrochemical capabilities enable the performance of tests such as polarization resistance, cyclic polarization, potentio-dynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under a wide range of environmental conditions.
Corrosion problems are a fundamental issue across all industries. Imperia’s extensive capabilities include:
- Electrochemical testing capabilities enabling the performance of tests under a wide range of environment conditions
- Customized tests to simulate process or field conditions
- Pilot scale or in-service studies for on-site evaluations.
Imperia can develop fully customized fixtures for the evaluation of standard or non-standard samples and component testing. We have extensive experience in evaluating various sized and non-standardized prototypes, samples and components, designing unique customized tests with computer control and data acquisition, monitoring in-progress testing with details playback, and performing testing under a controlled temperature using an environmental chamber. Our mechanical testing capabilities include tensile, compression, bending, peel, burst, stress relaxation, fatigue, hardness testing and more.
Selected Analytical Tools
We have unmatched experience in condition and aging assessment, life extension, and materials testing and evaluation using tools such as:
- Polymer thermal and mechanical analysis
- Mechanical testing (low and high temperatures)
- Corrosion analysis and testing
- Electrical testing
- Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
- Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis
- Optical microscopy
- Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy
- Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
- Chemical analysis
- Hardness and microhardness testing
- Polymer characterization & testing
- Product performance testing
- Specialized test fixtures
- Thermal aging
Staff Materials Expertise
- Materials selection and engineering
- Failure analysis
- Corrosion engineering
- Regulatory compliance
- Research and Development
- Intellectual Property
- Mechanical testing
- Electrical insulation materials
- Stress analysis
- Fracture mechanics
- Material and component degradation
- Electrical components